The engineers of ancient Egypt who planned and built the pyramids with accuracy had only the lever, the roller the inclined plane. The limestones required for building the pyramids were taken from the Mokattam hills on the west bank of the Nile River. The granite was brought from Aswan in Upper Egypt. Bronze saws with jeweled cutting points were used for cutting the stones. For transporting and raising the limestone blocks and roofing beams only the crowbars and short wooden planks were used.
The pharaohs were absolute rulers. They built the pyramids to live their after-lives. The Egyptians believed in life after death and to live that life, they preserved and sheltered the dead body. The chambers of the pyramids contained food, weapons, furniture, and other objects needed in after-life. In the pyramid of pharaoh Tutankhamun archaeologists have discovered couches, boxes inlaid with ebony and ivory, four chariots whose sides were covered with precious stones and rich gold decoration; also royal robes of the finest material decorated with bead and gold work.
From ancient to modern times the pyramids were plundered. Robbers opened the tombs, entered the mummy chambers, and took away the valuable things.